For Which Purpose Is Gonadal Shielding Recommended?

A technique for obtaining accurate measurement of the size and position of the internal organs using radiographic apparatus. A radiographic procedure used for the accurate measurement of long bones.

What is the maximum allowable tabletop intensity in high level control?

What is the maximum allowable tabletop intensity in high-level control (HLC) fluoroscopic procedures? 20 R/min.

What is Photodisintegration in radiology?

Photodisintegration (PD) is the process by which the x-ray photon is captured by the nucleus of the atom with the ejection of a particle from the nucleus when all the energy of the x-ray is given to the nucleus.

What is target to panel distance?

target to panel distance. optimal is 18 inch. minimum is 12 inches.

When using over 70 kVp The total filtration in the primary beam must be at least how much?

* If the exposure is always over 70 kVp: Total Filtration (inherent plus added) must equal 2.5 mm of aluminum equivalent. Protective shielding should be used to protect radiosensitive tissues from radiation exposure and to protect tissues not in the field of interest.

Which lumbar spine structures are best demonstrated with the patient in a 45 degree left posterior oblique LPO position?

Which lumbar spine structures are best demonstrated with the patient in a 45-degree left posterior oblique (LPO) position? The left zygapophyseal joints.

How is leg length measured in Scanogram?

Our Method. In our department, scanography is used chiefly in roentgenography of the bones of the legs to determine, by comparative measurement, differences in length. In the scanographic roentgenogram the slit-like beam is moved down the length of the patient’s legs from hips to ankles.

What is Scanogram xray?

Scanography is “a method of making radiographs by the use of a narrow slit beneath the tube in such a manner that only a line or sheet of x-rays is employed and the x-ray tube moves over the object so that all the rays of the central beam pass through the part being radiographed at the same angle” (1).

At which energy range does Photodisintegration occur quizlet?

At which energy range does photodisintegration occur? Above 10 megaelectron volts (MeV).

When should gonadal shielding be used?

Gonadal shielding devices are used during diagnostic x-ray procedures to protect the reproductive organs from exposure to the primary beam. They should be used when the gonads are within approximately 5 cm of a properly collimated beam.

When was gonadal shielding introduced?

Gonadal shielding was initially introduced in the 1950s due to concerns for hereditary effects from radiation (if parent gonads are irradiated, future offspring will inherit DNA mutations).

What is the minimum source to table top distance for a fluoroscopic system?

Above 70 71 2.1 80 2.3 90 2.5 100 2.7 110 3.0 120 3.2 130 3.5 140 3.8 150 4.1 Page 2 (4) Fluoroscopic exposure switch shall be of the dead-man type. (5) The source-tabletop distance shall not be less than 12 inches (30 cm) and should not be less than 15 inches (38 cm).

What is the preferred source-to-skin distance for C arms?

At a distance of 2 m, exposure is 0.025% of the direct beam intensity. The minimum source-to-skin distance for a stationary fluoroscopy tube should not be less than 38 cm (15 inches) and for a mobile C-arm, should not be less than 30 cm (12 inches).

What Is REM in fluoroscopy?

The classical unit of measurement is the rem (radiation equivalent man) and the international unit is the Sievert (Sv) (1 Sv = 100 rem).

Which projection demonstrates the right kidney in profile?

Erect anteroposterior (AP) of the entire spine. Which projection demonstrates the right kidney in profile? –45 degree left posterior oblique (LPO).

How does AEC work in radiography?

Automatic exposure control (AEC) is a device incorporated into radiographic and mammographic imaging systems. Its function is to automatically terminate exposure when a preset amount of radiation has been detected.

Which characteristic of cells makes them more radiosensitive?

Actively dividing cells that are less differentiated tend to show higher radiosensitivity. For example, hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow are differentiated into various blood cells, while dividing actively.

When a projectile electron interacts with the target?

X-rays are produced when high-speed projectile electrons collide with the X-ray tube target. The kinetic energy of projectile electrons transfers to target atoms. Approximately 99% of the energy converts into heat and only about 1% converts into X-rays.

What is produced when a projectile electron excites an outer shell electron?

What is produced when the projectile electron excites an outer-shell electron? Characteristic x-rays: … When a bremsstrahlung x-ray is emitted: This results from the conversion of kinetic energy.

What is projectile electron?

Define Projectile Electron. Electrons emitted by the filament and directed to the target (traveling from the cathode to the anode) Define Binding Energy. The strength of attachment of electrons to the nucleus.