Which Class Of Drugs Disrupts DNA By Intercalation?

DNA-intercalating agents are polycyclic aromatic molecules that can be mutagenic and cytotoxic to cells. In 1961, Leonard Lerman proposed and eventually showed that these compounds can unwind and extend DNA by inserting themselves between two nucleotide bases.

Why are intercalating agents bad?

There are a large number of chemicals that act as intercalating agents, can mutate DNA, and are carcinogenic (can cause cancer). Many of these are also used to treat cancer, as they preferentially kill actively dividing cells.

What does it mean to Intercalate?

1 : to insert (something, such as a day) in a calendar. 2 : to insert or position between or among existing elements or layers.

What does intercalation mean in the Bible?

1. According to Edwards (1989:193), intercalation is “breaking up a story or pericope by inserting a second, seemingly unrelated, story into the middle of it.

What is an intercalated year?

Intercalation is an additional year of study on top of your Medicine degree programme and an opportunity to explore a new area in greater depth, gain new knowledge and develop new skills.

Why does ethidium bromide fluorescence with DNA?

The reason for Ethidium Bromide’s intense fluorescence after binding with DNA is the hydrophobic environment found between the base pairs. By moving into this environment and away from the solvent, the EtBr cation is forced to shed any water associated molecules.

How does ethidium bromide bind to DNA?

Ethidium binds by inserting itself bewteen the stacked bases in double-stranded DNA. Note that the ring structure of ethidium is hydrophobic and resembles the rings of the bases in DNA. … In doing so, they distort the double helix and interfere with DNA replication, transcription, DNA repair, and recombination.

Is intercalation reversible?

In chemistry, intercalation is the reversible inclusion or insertion of a molecule (or ion) into layered materials with layered structures. Examples are found in graphite and transition metal dichalcogenides.

What are 3 types of mutagens?

Three different types of common mutagens are observed in nature- physical and chemical mutagens agents and biological agents.

  • Physical Agents: Heat and radiation.
  • Chemical Agents: Base analogs.
  • Biological Agents: Viruses, Bacteria, Transposons.

How does an intercalating agent introduce a mutation?

Intercalating agents, such as acridine, introduce atypical spacing between base pairs, resulting in DNA polymerase introducing either a deletion or an insertion, leading to a potential frameshift mutation.

How does ethidium bromide cause mutations?

Ethidium bromide was reasoned to cause severe health risks by acting as a mutagen because it intercalates double-stranded DNA (i.e. inserts itself between the strands), deforming the DNA, but that hypothesis has been repeatedly disproved by evidence.

What is intercalation of DNA?

In biochemistry, intercalation is the insertion of molecules between the planar bases of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This process is used as a method for analyzing DNA and it is also the basis of certain kinds of poisoning.

What are antimetabolite drugs?

Antimetabolites are a class of anticancer drugs defined as compounds, structurally similar to natural purine or pyrimidine base, nucleoside or nucleotides, molecules needed to carry out primary metabolic reactions that by virtue of their similarity act as analogues of a normal metabolites, interfere with the normal …

Why do anticancer agents target DNA?

DNA as carrier of genetic information is a major target for anticancer drug interaction because of the ability to interfere with transcription and DNA replication, a major step in cell growth and division.

What happens if you add too much ethidium bromide?

Adding too much ethidium on your gel can cause a lot of background fluorescence when visualising as well. Note that the SYBR Gold emission spectra is different from Ethidium Bromide as well so you might need a different filter on your imaging dock to see SYBR Gold-stained samples.

Is ethidium bromide a DNA intercalator?

Ethidium Bromide (EtBr) Dye for DNA and RNA Detection

Ethidium bromide is the most commonly used dye for DNA and RNA detection in gels. Ethidium bromide is a DNA intercalator, inserting itself between the base pairs in the double helix.

Is ethidium bromide a mutagen?

Because ethidium bromide can bind with DNA, it is highly toxic as a mutagen. It may potentially cause carcinogenic or teratogenic effects, although no scientific evidence showing either health effect has been found. Exposure routes of ethidium bromide are inhalation, ingestion, and skin absorption.

What Cannot be reason for using electrophoresis?

Explanation: Electrophoresis cannot arrange molecules on shape of backbone.

What would happen if the gel was run for too long?

What would happen if the gel was run for too long? The sample bands would move too far and leave the bottom of the gel.

Does ethidium bromide stain ssDNA?

Ethidium bromide is a sensitive, easy stain for DNA. It yields low background and a detection limit of 1-5 ng /band. The major drawback to ethidium bromide is that it is a potent mutagen. … Staining of denatured, ssDNA or RNA is relatively insensitive, requiring some 10 fold more nucleic acid for equivalent detection.

Is it worth doing an intercalated degree?

An intercalated degree is a great opportunity to get involved in research and academia which can be difficult to do in your medical course. … These skills will be useful in the future as a clinician with research being a fundamental part of medicine.

How important is intercalation?

The benefits of intercalating

Your year out can act not only as a break from your degree, to explore a subject you are passionate about, but also as an opportunity to experience life outside of medical school. … doing an extra year within your degree also gets you extra points for your application into foundation year.

Is an intercalated degree a full degree?

What is an Intercalated Degree? An Intercalated medical degree, is one extra year on top of your 5-year medical degree. During this time, you’re officially ‘suspended’ from medical school to study another undergraduate or postgraduate degree.