Why Do We Need Spanning Tree Protocol?

Since more than one path may exist between two LANs, packets may have to be routed through multiple bridges. Why is the spanning tree algorithm used for bridge-routing? Explanation: The main idea for using Spanning Trees is to avoid loops. See Spanning Tree Protocol for more details.

Is Spanning Tree Protocol still used?

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is dead, or at least it should be. … STP still only has one focal point (root) and can only have one forwarding path toward that one device. Yes, we can use technologies like EtherChannel to help hide portions of the topology for STP, but STP does NOT do multipath forwarding!

What is better than Spanning Tree?

The best technology to replace spanning tree in the data center is Multi System Link Aggregation (MLAG).

Is STP better than Rstp?

RSTP achieves better than branded extensions of Cisco without any added configuration. 802.1w can also revert back to 802.1D in order to interoperate with old bridges on a per-port basis. This drops the benefits it introduces. RSTP provides faster convergence than 802.1D STP when topology changes occur.

What is STP and its types?

Types of Spanning Tree Protocols (3.2.

STP—Defined in IEEE 802.1D, this is the original standard that provided a loop-free topology in a network with redundant links. Also called Common Spanning Tree (CST), it assumed one spanning-tree instance for the entire bridged network, regardless of the number of VLANs.

What is STP and how it works?

STP uses the Spanning-Tree Algorithm (SPA) to create a topology database of the network. To prevent loops, SPA places some interfaces in forwarding state and other interfaces in blocking state. … all switches in a network elect a root switch. All working interfaces on the root switch are placed in forwarding state.

Can spanning tree cause problems?

Spanning Tree is not inherently bad or wrong, but it does have many limitations in its design and operation. The most serious shortcoming is that STP has a brittle failure mode that can bring down entire data center or campus networks when something goes wrong.

What are two advantages of EtherChannel?

What are two advantages of EtherChannel? (Choose two.)

  • Configuring the EtherChannel interface provides consistency in the configuration of the physical links.
  • Load balancing occurs between links configured as different EtherChannels.
  • EtherChannel uses upgraded physical links to provide increased bandwidth.

How is spanning tree defined?

A spanning tree is a subset of Graph G, which has all the vertices covered with minimum possible number of edges. Hence, a spanning tree does not have cycles and it cannot be disconnected.. By this definition, we can draw a conclusion that every connected and undirected Graph G has at least one spanning tree.

What is STP treated water?

Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove these contaminants and produce environmentally safe treated wastewater (or treated effluent).

What is STP full form?

STP stands for Sewage Treatment Plant. It is a facility that receives the waste from domestic, commercial and industrial sources and filters it to remove the harmful substances that deteriorate water quality and affect public health and safety when discharged into rivers, canals, and other water bodies.

What are the 3 types of sewage treatment?

There are three main stages of the wastewater treatment process, aptly known as primary, secondary and tertiary water treatment. In some applications, more advanced treatment is required, known as quaternary water treatment.


The 802.1Q standard defines one unique Spanning Tree instance to be used by all VLANs in the network. … STP runs on the Native VLAN so that it can communicate with both 802.1Q and non-802.1Q compatible switches.

What are two types of sewage treatment?

Sewage treatment often involves two main stages, called primary and secondary treatment, while advanced treatment also incorporates a tertiary treatment stage with polishing processes.

What is STP in marketing?

STP marketing is an acronym for Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning – a three-step model that examines your products or services as well as the way you communicate their benefits to specific customer segments. … STP marketing represents a shift from product-focused marketing to customer-focused marketing.

Which is a type of STP state?

Spanning Tree Port States, Blocking, Listening, Learning, Forwarding, Disabled. The ports on a switch with enabled Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) are in one of the following five port states.

What is STP vs RSTP?

The main difference between Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP IEEE 802.1W) and Spanning Tree Protocol (STP IEEE 802.1D) is that Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP IEEE 802.1W) assumes the three Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) ports states Listening, Blocking, and Disabled are same (these states do not forward Ethernet …

What is STP and VTP?

VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) is a Cisco proprietary protocol that propagates VLAN on the whole local area network. VTP carries VLAN information to all the switches in a VTP domain. Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is a network protocol that builds a loop-free logical topology for Local Area Networks.

What is STP Bpdu guard?

BPDU Guard feature is used to protect the Layer 2 Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) Topology from BPDU related attacks. … When a BPDU Guard enabled port receive BPDU from the connected device, BPDU Guard disables the port and the port state is changed to Errdisable state.

What is STP in society?

Most modern day apartment complexes have their own Sewage Treatment Plants (STP). … As a general practice, the builder is responsible for maintenance and upkeep of any sewage treatment plants until the apartment complex is finished and transferred to the underlying Residents welfare society.

Do we drink sewer water?

What is recycled water? Water recycling is the process of taking effluent (wastewater and sewage) and treating it so that it can be reused. For potable (drinkable) use, the recycled water has to be treated to a sufficiently high level that it’s suitable for human consumption.

How do you calculate STP?

Determine the Minimum Population (P) using the same calculations as for sewage treatment plants; examples:

  1. A house with three bedrooms = a minimum 5 person system.
  2. A house with four bedrooms = a minimum 6 person system (5 + 1)
  3. A house with five bedrooms = a minimum 7 person system (5 + 2)

Related Q&A: