Pleural effusion, sometimes referred to as “water on the lungs,” is the build-up of excess fluid between the layers of the pleura outside the lungs. The pleura are thin membranes that line the lungs and the inside of the chest cavity and act to lubricate and facilitate breathing.
What are the two types of pleural effusion?
There are two types of pleural effusions: transudative and exudative. Transudative pleural effusion – fluid leaks into the pleural space; this type of pleural effusion is usually a result of conditions such heart failure or cirrhosis of the liver.
What is the difference between pleural effusion and Hemothorax?
A hemothorax (plural: hemothoraces), or rarely hematothorax, literally means blood within the chest, is a term usually used to describe a pleural effusion due to accumulation of blood. If a hemothorax occurs concurrently with a pneumothorax it is then termed a hemopneumothorax.
What is the meaning of Hydrothorax?
: an excess of serous fluid in the pleural cavity especially : an effusion resulting from failing circulation (as in heart disease or from lung infection)
What is the difference between Transudates and exudates?
“Transudate” is fluid buildup caused by systemic conditions that alter the pressure in blood vessels, causing fluid to leave the vascular system. “Exudate” is fluid buildup caused by tissue leakage due to inflammation or local cellular damage.
What is the most common cause of a pleural effusion?
Transudative pleural effusion is caused by fluid leaking into the pleural space. This is from increased pressure in the blood vessels or a low blood protein count. Heart failure is the most common cause.
Is pleural effusion and pneumonia the same thing?
Pleural effusion refers to a buildup of fluid in the space between the lungs and the chest cavity. It can result from pneumonia and many other conditions. It can also be life threatening. Pleural effusion, or “water on the lung,” can resemble a respiratory infection.
What are the risk factors for pleural effusion?
Common risk factors in the development of pleural effusion include pre-existing lung damage or disease, chronic smokers, neoplasia (e.g. lung cancer patients), alcohol abuse, use of certain medications (e.g. dasatinib in the treatment of patients with chronic myelogenous leukaemia and immunosuppressive medicine), …
What is a hepatic Hydrothorax?
Hepatic hydrothorax refers to the presence of a pleural effusion (usually >500 mL) in a patient with cirrhosis who does not have other reasons to have a pleural effusion (eg, cardiac, pulmonary, or pleural disease) . Hepatic hydrothorax occurs in approximately 5 to 15 percent of patients with cirrhosis.
What is pleural effusion or pneumothorax?
Pleural effusion – the buildup of pleural fluid in the pleural cavity. Pneumothorax – the presence of air or gas in the pleural cavity.
What is pleural effusion in medical terms?
Listen to pronunciation. (PLOOR-ul eh-FYOO-zhun) An abnormal collection of fluid between the thin layers of tissue (pleura) lining the lung and the wall of the chest cavity.
What is hydrothorax and Hemothorax?
This accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity is called pleural effusion. Pleural effusions are given specific names depending on the nature of the fluid: hydrothorax for serous fluid, pyothorax for pus, hemothorax for blood, and urinothorax for urine.
How is hydrothorax diagnosed?
Hepatic hydrothorax was diagnosed based on currently accepted clinical characteristics of the disease, including a known diagnosis of cirrhosis, the presence of portal hypertension, pleural fluid analysis, and the absence of primary cardiopulmonary disease.
What is Ellis curve?
Damoiseau-Ellis line is a clinical sign, that refers to upper limit of dullness to percussion caused by pleural effusion. It has characteristic shape of curved line with highest point at middle axillary line 1.
How do pleural effusion and consolidation differ?
Since an effusion is a fluid in a relatively open space, it will usually move due to gravity when you change your position. A lung consolidation may also be fluid, but it’s inside your lung, so it can’t move when you change positions. This is one way your doctor can tell the difference between the two.
What does pleural effusion indicate?
A pleural effusion is a buildup of extra fluid in the space between the lungs and the chest wall. This area is called the pleural space. About half of people with cancer develop a pleural effusion. When cancer grows in the pleural space, it causes a malignant pleural effusion.
Can pneumonia cause pleural effusion?
Fluid accumulation around the lungs (pleural effusion).
Pneumonia may cause fluid to build up in the thin space between layers of tissue that line the lungs and chest cavity (pleura). If the fluid becomes infected, you may need to have it drained through a chest tube or removed with surgery.
Is pleural effusion usually unilateral or bilateral?
In clinical practice, the determination whether a pleural effusion is uni- or bilateral is generally made from a chest x-ray. The situation is different when unilateral dullness to percussion points to a likely unilateral pulmonary effusion.
Can hypertension cause pleural effusion?
Background: Pleural effusions frequently accumulate in patients with left-sided heart failure. However, our recent study in patients with idiopathic and heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) demonstrated that pleural effusions frequently occur in patients with isolated right–sided heart failure (RHF).
What causes pleural effusion in the lungs?
Pleural effusion occurs when fluid builds up in the space between the lung and the chest wall. This can happen for many different reasons, including pneumonia or complications from heart, liver, or kidney disease. Another reason could be as a side effect from cancer.
Is pleural effusion transudate vs exudate?
To distinguish exudates from transudates if the patient’s serum total protein is normal and the pleural fluid protein is less than 25g/L the fluid is a transudate. If the pleural fluid protein is greater than 35g/L the fluid is an exudate.
Is pus and exudate the same?
Exudate is fluid that leaks out of blood vessels into nearby tissues. The fluid is made of cells, proteins, and solid materials. Exudate may ooze from cuts or from areas of infection or inflammation. It is also called pus.
Why is it important to classify exudates from transudates?
It is clinically important to classify pleural and ascitic fluids into exudates and transudates because this is indicative of the underlying pathophysiological process involved. Such a distinction allows appropriate investigations to be instigated, enabling better patient management.