Esther Miriam Zimmer Lederberg (1922 – 2006) was an American microbiologist, who discovered bacterial virus Lambda phage and the bacterial fertility factor F (F plasmid).
Who discovered transduction in bacteria?
The discovery and initial mechanistic description of transduction were reported in 1952 by Norton Zinder and Joshua Lederberg in the Journal of Bacteriology (3).
Which virus is used for transduction?
In contrast to other viruses, the adenoviral DNA remains episomal, i.e., it is not integrated into the host genome. Nowadays, replication-deficient adenoviruses are widely used for transduction and gene therapy, due to their high efficiency and low pathogenicity.
What virus affects bacteria?
A bacteriophage is a type of virus that infects bacteria. In fact, the word “bacteriophage” literally means “bacteria eater,” because bacteriophages destroy their host cells. All bacteriophages are composed of a nucleic acid molecule that is surrounded by a protein structure.
What are 3 interesting facts about Esther Lederberg?
She discovered the lambda phage, a bacterial virus which is widely used as a tool to study gene regulation and genetic recombination. She also invented the replica plating technique, which is used to isolate and analyse bacterial mutants and track antibiotic resistance.
Where did Esther Lederberg grow up?
Born in 1922, Esther Miriam Zimmer came of age in New York City during World War II. Her family was poor. Her father worked as a printer, his siblings as garment workers. But Esther, a voracious learner, would fly far beyond the Bronx neighborhood where she grew up.
What can be concluded from the Lederberg replica plating experiments?
-The colonies X and Y survived which shows that they already had mutation genes for penicillin resistance. -Then the original plate was washed with penicillin. The colonies X and Y live. So he concluded that the penicillin- resistant bacteria were already present in the population.
What did Lederberg and Tatum do?
It was long thought that bacteria multiply by dividing, so that all bacteria have the same genetic make-up. Joshua Lederberg and Edward Tatum demonstrated in 1946 that bacteria’s genes can also change in a way similar to that of sexual reproduction seen in more complex organisms.
What is the Lederberg experiment?
The Lederberg experiment. In 1952, Esther and Joshua Lederberg performed an experiment that helped show that many mutations are random, not directed. In this experiment, they capitalized on the ease with which bacteria can be grown and maintained. Bacteria grow into isolated colonies on plates.
How do you do replica plating?
The technique involves pressing a velveteen-covered disk, and then imprinting secondary plates with cells in colonies removed from the original plate by the material. Generally, large numbers of colonies (roughly 30-300) are replica plated due to the difficulty in streaking each out individually onto a separate plate.
Can a virus live inside a bacteria?
Viruses Infect Bacteria
If you have ever caught a cold or had the flu you know it is no fun getting infected with a virus. Well, it turns out that most of the viruses in the world infect bacteria instead of people. Scientists call these viruses bacteriophages (which literally means “bacteria eaters”).
Can a bacteria host a virus?
Even bacteria can get a virus! The viruses that infect bacteria are called bacteriophages, and certain bacteriophages have been studied in detail in the lab (making them some of the viruses we understand best).
What are viruses made of?
There are all sorts of virus shapes and sizes. However, all virus particles have a protein coat that surrounds and protects a nucleic acid genome. This protein coat is called a capsid, and the instructions for making the protein subunits of the capsid are encoded in the nucleic acid genome of the virus.
Does transduction add plasmid DNA?
Transfer of this DNA to another cell is referred to as transduction. Transferred DNA once inside the infected bacterium can either exist as transient extrachromosomal DNA, like a plasmid, or it can integrate into the host bacterium’s genome through homologous or site directed recombination.
Is transduction beneficial to bacteria?
Transduction is especially important because it explains one mechanism by which antibiotic drugs become ineffective due to the transfer of antibiotic-resistance genes between bacteria.
Can two F+ bacteria conjugate?
The bacterium is F+, but is now the recipient. (No, a bacterium with the F factor is not a recipient.) When the F factor is integrated into the bacterial chromosome, it can still act as the donor in a conjugation cross. … You are going to do a mapping experiment using two bacterial strains.
Who discovered conjugation?
The conjugation is discovered by Lederberg and Tatum. They showed that the bacterium Escherichia coli entered a sexual phase during which it could share genetic information.
Who discovered plasmids?
The word ‘plasmid’ was first coined by Joshua Lederberg in 1952. He used it to describe ‘any extrachromosomal hereditary element’. Lederberg first used the term in a paper he published describing some experiments he and his graduate student Norton Zinder conducted on Salmonella bacteria and its virus P22.
How was transduction discovered?
Discovery of transduction
In 1951, Joshua Lederberg and Norton Zinder were testing for recombination in the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium by using the techniques that had been successful with E. coli. The researchers used two different strains: one was phe− trp− tyr−, and the other was met− his−.