What Diseases Are Caused By Alcaligenes Faecalis?

Alcaligenes faecalis is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria commonly found in the environment. A. faecalis-associated nosocomial infections are common in hospitalized patients, but serious life threatening infections are rare.

What is Alcaligenes faecalis used for?

While opportunistic infections do occur, the bacterium is generally considered nonpathogenic. When an opportunistic infection does occur, it is usually observed in the form of a urinary tract infection. A. faecalis has been used for the production of nonstandard amino acids.

Where are Alcaligenes faecalis found?

Alcaligenes faecalis is a Gram-negative, obligate aerobe, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive, and non-fermenting bacterium commonly found in soil, water, and hospital environments.

What does Alcaligenes faecalis smell like?

The organism is readily recognizable by its characteristic colonial appearances, fruity smell and greening of blood agar.

How is Alcaligenes faecalis transmitted?

Alcaligenes faecalis is a gram-negative bacterium that is commonly found in the environment. This pathogen is usually transmitted in the form of droplets through ventilation equipment and nebulizers, but transmission through direct contact has also been documented in few case reports.

What is Alcaligenes faecalis resistant to?

Alcaligenes faecalis is generally resistant to aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol and tetracyclines and usually susceptible to trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole and β-lactam antibiotics such as ureidopenicillins, ticarcillin–clavulanic acid, cephalosporins and carbapenems.

What pH does Alcaligenes faecalis grow best at?

It is also pH-dependent in vitro with an optimum between 5.8 and 7.

What shape is E coli?

E. coli is a Gram negative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacteria of the genus Escherichia, commonly found in the lower intestine of humans and animals. Most varieties are harmless.

Is a faecalis aerobic or anaerobic?

Alcaligenes faecalis is an aerobic bacillus known to inhabit soil and water environments (5).

Does Alcaligenes faecalis reduce nitrate?

faecalis could not reduce nitrate, at three poised potentials of +0.06, −0.06, and −0.15 V (versus normal hydrogen electrode ), the nitrate was partially reduced with −0.15- and −0.06-V potentials at rates of 17.3 and 28.5 mg/liter/day, respectively.

Does Alcaligenes faecalis form spores?

faecalis was isolated in 1896 by Petruschky from stale beer. Several strains of the organism have been found since then. This species is motile, flagellated, slender, slightly curved, not spore-forming, slowly growing, nonfermenting, capsule forming, Gram-negative aerobe of the family Alcaligenaceae.

Is Alcaligenes faecalis Gram positive or negative?

Alcaligenes faecalis is a Gram-negative catalase– and oxidase-positive, motile rod. It is commonly found in a watery environment and is rarely isolated from humans.

Is Alcaligenes faecalis an opportunistic pathogen?

Alcaligenes faecalis is usually causes opportunistic infections in humans. Alcaligenes faecalis infection is often difficult to treat due to its increased resistance to several antibiotics. The results from a clinical study of patients with Alcaligenes faecalis infection may help improve patients’ clinical care.

How does Proteus vulgaris cause UTI?

Therefore, like Escherichia coli, Proteus spp. causes urinary tract infections by ascending from the rectum to the periurethra and bladder. P. mirabilis is by far the most common species identified in clinical specimens.

Is Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gram positive or negative?

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative rod measuring 0.5 to 0.8 μm by 1.5 to 3.0 μm. Almost all strains are motile by means of a single polar flagellum, and some strains have two or three flagella (Fig.

How do you identify faecalis?

In the laboratory, enterococci are distinguished by their morphologic appearance on Gram stain and culture (gram-positive cocci that grow in chains) and their ability to (1) hydrolyze esculin in the presence of bile, (2) their growth in 6.5% sodium chloride, (3) their hydrolysis of pyrrolidonyl arylamidase and leucine …

What is the optimal pH for a faecalis?

faecalis grows in a wide range of pHs (5.0 to 9.6) with a pHo between 7.0 and 7.5. Nevertheless, a higher pH (pH 10.5) was necessary to induce maximal tolerance against pH 11.9 (data not shown).

What does a faecalis ferment?

Streptococcus faecalis ferments gluconic acid with the production of 0·5 mole carbon dioxide, 1·5 moles lactic acid and the rest a mixture of small amounts of acetic acid, formic acid and ethyl alcohol, In the presence of arsenite, 1·75 moles of lactic acid were produced with negligible amounts of the minor products ( …

Is Alcaligenes faecalis normal flora?

Alcaligenes faecalis is a gram-negative organism that is commonly found in the environment and may also be a part of normal fecal flora in humans.

Where is Proteus vulgaris found in the environment?

Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris are commensals of the normal flora of the human gastrointestinal tract, but they also can be found in water and soil.

Is alcaligenes aerobic?

Alcaligenes are Gram-negative, aerobic bacteria although some strains are capable of anaerobic respiration in the presence of nitrite or nitrate. They are catalase and oxidase positive.