Risk factors include cryptorchidism (undescended testis), personal history of testicular cancer, family history of testicular cancer, intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN), and gonadal dysgenesis. Other risk factors may include childhood inguinal hernias and any other cause of testicular atrophy.
What’s the difference between seminoma and nonseminoma?
Seminomas are very sensitive to radiation therapy. Nonseminoma: This more common type of testicular cancer tends to grow more quickly than seminomas. Nonseminoma tumors are often made up of more than one type of cell, and are identified according to these different cell types: Choriocarcinoma (rare)
Do seminomas metastasize?
Within the group of germ cell tumors, pure seminomas are least likely to metastasize to the GI tract with an incidence of less than 1%. The most frequent mode of metastasis to the GI tract is direct extension from the retroperitoneal lymph nodes, which drain the testes.
What is it called when you remove your balls?
An orchiectomy is surgery in which one or more testicles are removed. The testicles, which are male reproductive organs that produce sperm, sit in a sac, called the scrotum. The scrotum is just below the penis.
Are seminomas malignant?
A seminoma is a germ cell tumor of the testicle or, more rarely, the mediastinum or other extra-gonadal locations. It is a malignant neoplasm and is one of the most treatable and curable cancers, with a survival rate above 95% if discovered in early stages.
What is the most aggressive testicular tumor?
Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumors
Embryonal carcinoma: present in about 40 percent of tumors and among the most rapidly growing and potentially aggressive tumor types. Embryonal carcinoma can secrete HCG or alpha fetoprotein (AFP).
Is non seminoma curable?
Patients with stage I testicular cancer of non-seminoma type have a primary cancer that is limited to the testes and is curable in more than 95% of cases. A variety of factors ultimately influence a patient’s decision to receive treatment of cancer.
Is non seminoma malignant?
Testicular non-seminomatous giant cell tumor (NSGCT) is curable cancer. It can be managed ideally if the medical health providers know the knowledge of its pathophysiology and route of spread. It is a malignant but curable tumor if diagnosed and managed properly.
What causes a seminoma?
Causes. A seminoma arises from germ cells that grow uncontrollably. Germ cells are the cells that form an embryo in a mother’s womb. Later on in development, germ cells are supposed to mature into sperm-producing cells within the male testicles.
Can a seminoma return?
In seminomas, recurrences still occur until 3 years. Recurrences after 3 years are rare, occurring in less than 5% of people. Because of the risk of recurrence, you’ll need regular tests to check if the cancer has returned.
What does Extragonadal mean?
“Extragonadal” means outside of the gonads (sex organs). When cells that are meant to form sperm in the testicles or eggs in the ovaries travel to other parts of the body, they may grow into extragonadal germ cell tumors.
What are non germ cells?
Included in this group are sex cord/gonadal stromal tumors, most originating from Leydig or Sertoli cells, mixed tumors, and tumors of mesenchymal or hematopoietic origin. In addition, various miscellaneous lesions, tumor-like conditions, and secondary testicular tumors may be classified as non-germ cell tumors.
What is embryonic cell carcinoma?
Listen. Embryonal carcinoma is a type of testicular cancer, which is cancer that starts in the testicles, the male reproductive glands located in the scrotum. It most often develops in young and middle-aged men. It tends to grow rapidly and spread outside the testicle.
How do you get Spermatocele?
Spermatoceles happen when sperm builds up somewhere in the epididymis. Healthcare providers don’t fully understand the factors that lead to this sperm buildup. Some medical experts point to a blockage in the epididymal duct or inflammation as potential causes.
What is retroperitoneal surgery?
A retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is surgery to remove the lymph nodes in the back of the abdomen (retroperitoneum). The lymph nodes in the back of the abdomen are called retroperitoneal lymph nodes. An RPLND is also called a retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy.
What is the choriocarcinoma?
(KOR-ee-oh-KAR-sih-NOH-muh) A malignant, fast-growing tumor that develops from trophoblastic cells (cells that help an embryo attach to the uterus and help form the placenta). Almost all choriocarcinomas form in the uterus after fertilization of an egg by a sperm, but a small number form in a testis or an ovary.
How do doctors do chemotherapy?
Chemotherapy is most often given as an infusion into a vein (intravenously). The drugs can be given by inserting a tube with a needle into a vein in your arm or into a device in a vein in your chest. Chemotherapy pills. Some chemotherapy drugs can be taken in pill or capsule form.
Can a testicular tumor be non cancerous?
See your doctor if you notice any new lump in your scrotum. Spermatocele. Also known as a spermatic cyst or epididymal cyst, spermatocele is a typically painless, noncancerous (benign), fluid-filled sac in the scrotum, usually above the testicle.
Do epididymal cysts get bigger?
Usually, epididymal cysts and spermatoceles will either get smaller as the body reabsorbs fluid from the cyst or they will stay the same size. Sometimes, though, an epididymal cyst may continue to grow larger or cause pain, swelling, or embarrassment to the patient.
Is teratoma malignant or benign?
In its pure form, mature cystic teratoma of the ovary is always benign, but in approximately 0.2-2% of cases, it may undergo malignant transformation into one of its elements, the majority of which are squamous cell carcinomas.
Are seminomas radiosensitive?
These tumors are believed to arise from the seminiferous epithelium and are thought to be analogous to an ovarian dysgerminoma. Seminomas are highly radiosensitive and have the most favorable prognosis of the germ cell tumors, with an overall 5-year survival rate of approximately 99% for low-stage tumors.
Are all testicular masses cancerous?
Most testicular lumps are benign. Understand that lumps may be caused by other conditions: Often, testicular lumps are caused by something other than testicular cancer. Sometimes, an infection may cause swelling and tenderness.
Can you lose a testicle inside you?
The testicle moves to its correct location in the scrotum and stays there permanently. Sometimes the retractile testicle remains in the groin and is no longer movable. When this happens, the condition is called an ascending testicle or an acquired undescended testicle.