What Makes Up The Pterygoid Plexus?

A venous plexus is a congregation of multiple veins.

Why is pterygoid plexus important?

The pterygoid plexus functions to return the blood to the heart; this occurs during the movement of the lateral pterygoid, generating a pumping action of the blood back to the heart.

Which vein does join the pterygoid plexus of veins?

The pterygoid plexus of veins becomes the maxillary vein. The maxillary vein and the superficial temporal vein later join to become the retromandibular vein. The posterior branch of the retromandibular vein and posterior auricular vein then form the external jugular vein, which empties into the subclavian vein.

Does pterygoid plexus drain into cavernous sinus?

The superior ophthalmic vein drains directly into the cavernous sinus through the superior orbital fissure. … The pterygoid plexus communicates with the cavernous sinus through the foramina ovale, spinosum, and rotundum.

What is Batson venous plexus?

Batson venous plexus, also known as Batson veins, are a network of paravertebral veins with no valves that connect thoracic vessels and deep pelvic veins draining the bladder, prostate, and rectum to the internal vertebral venous plexus 1.

Where is the venous plexus?

The external venous plexus lies outside the vertebral channel, along the surfaces of the vertebral bodies, and communicates with the internal plexus through veins in the neural foramina.

Where is the venous plexus located?

The internal vertebral venous plexus is located beneath the bony elements of the vertebral foramina (laminae, spinous processes, pedicles, and vertebral body). It is embedded in a layer of loose areolar tissue know as the epidural (extradural) adipose tissue.

What are Pterygoids?

The pterygoid muscles are two of the four muscles of mastication, located in the infratemporal fossa of the skull. These muscles are: lateral pterygoid and medial pterygoid. The primary function of the pterygoid muscles is to produce movements of the mandible at the temporomandibular joint.

Where is the pterygoid process?

Two pairs of bony plates, the pterygoid processes, arise from the base of each alisphenoid bone. The outer plates are nearly horizontal in position. They extend from the posterior end of the maxillary bone caudad and laterad to the lateral surface of the tympanic bulla.

Where is the pterygoid plexus of veins located?

The pterygoid venous plexus is an extensive valveless plexus of veins that parallels the medial two thirds of the maxillary artery on the lateral aspect of the medial pterygoid muscle, within the infratemporal fossa.

Which plexus drains the uterus?


In humans, the uterus is drained via the uterine vein. The uterine veins form a uterine venous plexus on each side of the cervix. Veins from the uterine plexus drain into the internal iliac veins.

Which plexus drains the ovaries?

In females, the pampiniform plexus drains the ovaries. The right ovary drains from the plexus to the ovarian vein and then to the inferior vena cava.

Where does Batson plexus drain?

The Batson venous plexus (Batson veins) is a network of valveless veins in the human body that connect the deep pelvic veins and thoracic veins (draining the inferior end of the urinary bladder, breast and prostate) to the internal vertebral venous plexuses.

What is the clinical significance of the spinal valveless plexus?

Today, the VVP is considered part of the cerebrospinal venous system, which is regarded as a unique, large-capacitance, valveless plexiform venous network in which flow is bidirectional that plays an important role in the regulation of intracranial pressure with changes in posture and in venous outflow from the brain, …

How does the Pampiniform plexus regulate temperature?

The pampiniform plexus helps regulate the temperature of the testes by acting as a “heat exchange” mechanism to cool down the blood. The arteries supplying the testes run through the plexus where the blood is cooled from abdominal arterial temperature to testicular temperature.

What is ophthalmic vein?

Ophthalmic veins are veins which drain the eye. More specifically, they can refer to: Superior ophthalmic vein. Inferior ophthalmic vein.

What is medial pterygoid?

The medial pterygoid muscle, a major elevator of the jaw is a square-shaped masticatory muscle, located on the medial aspect of the lower jaw bilaterally. It is also known as internal pterygoid muscle. This muscle lies medial to the lateral pterygoid muscle.

What are the dural venous sinuses?

Dural venous sinuses are a group of sinuses or blood channels that drains venous blood circulating from the cranial cavity. It collectively returns deoxygenated blood from the head to the heart to maintain systemic circulation.

Where is the maxillary vein?

The maxillary vein is located on the posteromedial side of the mandibular ramus, and carries the blood collected in the pterygoid venous plexus to the retromandibular vein.

What is the angular vein?

The angular vein (v. angularis) formed by the junction of the supratrochlear and supraorbital veins, runs obliquely downward, on the side of the root of the nose, to the level of the lower margin of the orbit, where it becomes the anterior facial vein.

Where is the lateral pterygoid muscle?

Lateral pterygoid is a two-headed, fan-shaped muscle located in the infratemporal fossa of the skull. It is one of the four masticatory muscles, along with the medial pterygoid, temporalis and masseter muscles. All these muscles act upon the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) to enable chewing (mastication) and biting.

What is the Pterygoid region?

The pterygoid fossa is an anatomical term for the fossa formed by the divergence of the lateral pterygoid plate and the medial pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone.