How Long Before Smoldering Myeloma Become Multiple Myeloma?

To meet the definition of smoldering multiple myeloma, both of the following criteria must be met: Serum monoclonal protein (IgG or IgA) ≥30 g/L or urinary monoclonal protein ≥500 mg per 24 h and/or clonal bone marrow plasma cells 10–60% Absence of myeloma-defining events or amyloidosis.

How often does MGUS turn into multiple myeloma?

On average, about 1% of people with MGUS go on to develop multiple myeloma each year. Doctors typically estimate a person’s risk of progressing soon after MGUS is diagnosed, using a test that measures the amounts of certain markers in the blood.

How quickly does MGUS progress to multiple myeloma?

Plasma cell MGUS is stable but can sporadically progress to multiple myeloma (MM) at an average rate of about 1% per year.

How do you know MGUS is progressing?

People with MGUS need to be monitored with blood and urine testing every 6 to 12 months to determine if MGUS is progressing. For a small percentage of individuals, the condition develops into cancerous conditions, such as multiple myeloma or lymphoma.

How long can Smouldering myeloma last?

If two of these are present, a patient has intermediate risk smoldering myeloma with an average between 3-5 years to progression to symptomatic myeloma. The intermediate risk has an average time of between 3 and 5 years to progression.

What is considered high risk MGUS?

People who have high-risk MGUS have any of the following features: The M-protein level is more than 15 g/L. The type of M-protein is IgA or IgM. The free light chain ratio is abnormal.

Can someone with MGUS donate blood?

In our experience permanent deferral of regular blood donors with MGUS is likely to cause a reduction of about 1% of blood donations. This should be justified by evidence of potential harm to the donor or to the blood component recipient.

What is high risk smoldering myeloma?

Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic plasma cell dyscrasia with a high propensity to progress to symptomatic myeloma (MM). It meets all the diagnostic criteria for MM, but without lytic bone disease, anemia, renal failure, or hypercalcemia (CRAB symptoms).

Does MGUS run in families?

From recent data, there also appears to be an increased prevalence of MGUS in families containing ≥ 1 person with a lymphoid or plasma cell proliferative disorder. Investigations have been performed to estimate the magnitude of the excess risk in first-degree relatives and to explore possible underlying mechanisms.

How bad is smoldering myeloma?

Although it is not a type of cancer, it can progress to cancer. Those with SMM have a high risk of developing multiple myeloma, which is a type of cancer that influences plasma cells. These specialized cells are primarily located in the bone marrow and are an essential part of the immune system.

When should I suspect MGUS?

Diagnosis of MGUS is usually suspected when M-protein is incidentally detected in blood or urine during a routine examination. On laboratory evaluation, M-protein is present in low levels in serum (< 3 g/dL) or urine (< 200 mg/24 hours).

How do I know my smoldering in myeloma?

  1. Blood tests to diagnose smoldering multiple myeloma include:
  2. Urine test. Your doctor may need to collect your urine over a 24-hour period when you are diagnosed and again 2 to 3 months later as a follow-up.
  3. Bone marrow biopsy. Your doctor will use a needle to collect some of the spongy stuff in the middle of your bone.

Can multiple myeloma be asymptomatic?

Smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma is an asymptomatic plasma-cell proliferative disorder associated with a high risk of progression to symptomatic multiple myeloma or amyloidosis. Prognostic factors for the progression and outcome of this disease are unclear.

Can multiple myeloma be dormant?

Multiple myeloma isn’t considered curable,” but symptoms wax and wane. There can be a long period of dormancy that could last several years. However, this cancer usually recurs.

What foods should be avoided with MGUS?

Hence, MGUS patients should avoid taking a diet including obesity causing foods such as red meat and processed meat, fried foods, processed foods, sugar-sweetened beverages and fast foods to reduce the risk of progression to Multiple Myeloma and Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia.

Is MGUS an autoimmune disease?

Background. Multiple myeloma (MM) and its precursor, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), have been linked with several autoimmune conditions in the medical literature.

Does MGUS ever go away?

There’s no way to treat MGUS. It doesn’t go away on its own, but it doesn’t usually cause symptoms or develop into a serious condition. A doctor will recommend regular checkups and blood tests to keep an eye on your health. Usually, these checkups start six months after first diagnosing MGUS.

What is the M protein in MGUS?

Overview. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a condition in which an abnormal protein — known as monoclonal protein or M protein — is in your blood. This abnormal protein is formed within your bone marrow, the soft, blood-producing tissue that fills in the center of most of your bones.

Is MGUS rare?

Age. MGUS is more common in older people. It is rare in people under the age of 40.

Does having MGUS make you immunocompromised?

Immunosuppression (one or more suppressed uninvolved immunoglobulins) was found in 58% of patients with MGUS progression compared with 20% of those without progression.

What is the longest survival rate for myeloma?

The overall 5-year survival rate for people with multiple myeloma is 54%. For the 5% of people who are diagnosed at an early stage, the 5-year survival rate is 75%. If the cancer has spread to a distant part of the body, the 5-year survival rate is 53%. Approximately 95% of cases are diagnosed at this stage.

Does MGUS cause headaches?

Headache, dizziness, nerve pain, or changes in vision or hearing. Bleeding. Anemia or other blood abnormalities. Swollen lymph nodes, liver or spleen.

What are some healthy habits a person can follow to avoid multiple myeloma?

The cancer cells that build up in your bone marrow may crowd out your healthy blood cells.


  • Fruits like apples and pears.
  • Dried fruits like figs and prunes.
  • Whole grains.
  • Oatmeal and other cereals.
  • Nuts and beans.
  • Vegetables like broccoli, carrots, celery, and artichokes.