In Which Of The Following Situations Could Erythroblastosis Fetalis Occur?

Erythroblastosis fetalis can occur when different Rh factor blood types mix during pregnancy. Problems can arise even if small amounts of Rh-positive and Rh-negative blood mix.

What conditions impair coagulation except?


  • Hemophilia. This condition is a bleeding disorder in which blood does not clot normally. …
  • Von Willebrand disease. …
  • Other clotting factor deficiencies. …
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation. …
  • Liver Disease. …
  • Overdevelopment of circulating anticoagulants. …
  • Vitamin K deficiency. …
  • Platelet dysfunction.

Why is the liver dysfunction associated with bleeding disorders?

The liver plays a central role in the clotting process, and acute and chronic liver diseases are invariably associated with coagulation disorders due to multiple causes: decreased synthesis of clotting and inhibitor factors, decreased clearance of activated factors, quantitative and qualitative platelet defects,

When a blood vessel is broken What is the body’s first response?

Vasoconstriction is the initial response whenever there is vessel injury. Vasospasm of the blood vessels occurs first in response to injury of the vasculature. This vasospasm, in turn, stimulates vasoconstriction.

Which vaccine is used in the treatment of Erythroblastosis Fetalis?

A preventive treatment known as RhoGAM, or Rh immunoglobulin, can reduce a mother’s reaction to their baby’s Rh-positive blood cells. This is administered as a shot at around the 28th week of pregnancy. The shot is administered again at least 72 hours after birth if the baby is Rh positive.

Which may activate platelets?

Thrombin activates platelets through protease-activated receptors (PAR) on the platelet surface via GPCR. PAR1 mediates human platelet activation at low thrombin concentration, while PAR4 requires higher concentration of thrombin for platelet activation.

Does liver disease affect INR?

The liver produces the majority of coagulation proteins needed in blood clotting cascade. Severe liver injury leads to reduction of liver synthesis of clotting factors and consequently prolonged PT or an increased INR, which is a method to homogenize PT level reporting across the world.

Why is there coagulopathy in liver disease?

Patients with liver disease may be have reduced, normal, or increased enzymatic coagulation: Most clotting factors are synthesized by the liver (e.g., fibrinogen, thrombin = factor II, and factors V, VII, IX X, and XI). Reduction in these clotting factors tends to cause reduced enzymatic coagulation.

Can liver failure cause clots?

Portal vein thrombosis is common in patients with liver cirrhosis, seen in 10%-25% of the patients, with increased prevalence seen in patients with more severe disease.

What happens if blood does not coagulate?

Because blood does not clot properly without enough clotting factor, any cut or injury carries the risk of excessive bleeding. In addition, people with hemophilia may suffer from internal bleeding that can damage joints, organs, and tissues over time.

What are two conditions that cause polycythemia?

What are the risk factors for polycythemia?

  • Hypoxia from long standing (chronic) lung disease and smoking are common causes of polycythemia. …
  • Chronic carbon monoxide (CO) exposure can also be a risk factor for polycythemia.

How do you know if you have a blood clotting disorder in pregnancy?

Signs of Blood Clot During Pregnancy

Swelling of the legs during pregnancy is normal. However, painful swelling or redness are not normal and could be symptoms of a deep vein thrombosis. Sudden shortness of breath or chest pain could be symptoms of pulmonary embolism.

Who is at risk for erythroblastosis fetalis?

Two blood group systems, Rh and ABO, primarily are associated with erythroblastosis fetalis. The Rh system is responsible for the most severe form of the disease, which can occur when an Rh-negative woman (a woman whose blood cells lack the Rh factor) conceives an Rh-positive fetus.

How is erythroblastosis fetalis caused?

Erythroblastosis fetalis is hemolytic anemia in the fetus (or neonate, as erythroblastosis neonatorum) caused by transplacental transmission of maternal antibodies to fetal red blood cells. The disorder usually results from incompatibility between maternal and fetal blood groups, often Rho(D) antigens.

Why does erythroblastosis fetalis occur with a second pregnancy?

Most problems occur in future pregnancies with another Rh positive baby. During that pregnancy, the mother’s antibodies cross the placenta to fight the Rh positive cells in the baby’s body. As the antibodies destroy the cells, the baby gets sick. This is called erythroblastosis fetalis during pregnancy.

What causes coagulopathy?

Coagulopathy may be caused by reduced levels or absence of blood-clotting proteins, known as clotting factors or coagulation factors. Genetic disorders, such as hemophilia and von Willebrand’s disease, can cause a reduction in clotting factors.

Why is albumin decreased in liver disease?

Most important, the loss of albumin function and the increase in the IMA level were associated with poor survival . From a clinical context, the non-oncotic properties of albumin have so far been exploited in extracorporeal albumin dialysis systems in patients with acute or acute-on-chronic liver failure.

How is coagulopathy corrected in cirrhosis of the liver?

Patients with cirrhosis and abnormal coagulation screening tests often receive vitamin K despite a lack of evidence supporting benefit. Supplemental vitamin K may correct abnormal coagulation tests in patients at high risk for deficiency due to biliary disease or gut sterilization from broad-spectrum antibiotics.

How does liver disease affect prothrombin time?

When the PT is high, it takes longer for the blood to clot (17 seconds, for example). This usually happens because the liver is not making the right amount of blood clotting proteins, so the clotting process takes longer. A high PT usually means that there is serious liver damage or cirrhosis.

What causes high protime and INR?

A blood clot in a vein or artery. An acute condition such as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) that may cause both bleeding and clotting as coagulation factors are used up at a rapid rate. A chronic condition such as severe liver disease that may affect hemostasis.

Why is GGT increased?

Elevated levels may be due to liver diseases, such as hepatitis or cirrhosis, but they may also be due to other conditions, such as congestive heart failure, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, or pancreatitis. They may also be caused by alcohol abuse, alcoholic liver disease, or use of drugs that are toxic to the liver.

How are platelets kept inactive?

Platelets are generated by megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. ∼30% of platelets are stored in the spleen. Ageing platelets lose sialic acid from their surface, and are then removed from circulation in the liver (Kile, 2015). In their inactive state platelets are disk-shaped with diameter of 2-4 µm.

What causes fibrin activation?

When the lining of a blood vessel is broken, platelets are attracted, forming a platelet plug. These platelets have thrombin receptors on their surfaces that bind serum thrombin molecules, which in turn convert soluble fibrinogen in the serum into fibrin at the wound site.

When do platelets get activated?

Platelets are normally activated in the presence of tissue injury with endothelial disruption and loss of activation inhibitors, exposure of the von Willebrand factor that binds it’s receptor and slows circulating platelets, and release of ADP, thrombin, and TxA2 as well as binding of fibrinogen or collagen to αIIb/β3.