Normally the umbilical cord is supposed to insert and attach to the center of the placenta (central cord insertion). A marginal umbilical cord insertion occurs when the cord attaches on the side of the placenta instead of in the middle at the central placental mass.
What is abnormal cord insertion?
Velamentous cord insertion refers to a type of abnormality of the umbilical cord attachment to the placenta. Due to the danger of complications, velamentous cord insertion precautions should be taken during the pregnancy to reduce the risk of danger to the baby.
Should I worry about marginal cord insertion?
As long as the baby is receiving a good flow of oxygen and nutrients from the mother, there is no need to worry. But marginal cord insertion can develop into the dangerous velamentous cord insertion later in pregnancy, so it must be monitored carefully. Ultrasound should be able to spot this condition.
Is eccentric cord insertion bad?
Types of Abnormal Cord Insertion
Central is normal. Eccentric, which is the lateral insertion of the umbilical cord >2 cm from the placental margin, is also not a grave concern.
Is marginal cord insertion a high risk pregnancy?
Pregnancies complicated by marginal cord insertion are at higher risk to develop low birth weight (AOR = 2.89, 95% CI: 1.23–6.80), preterm birth (AOR = 4.00, 95% CI: 1.44–11.14), and emergency cesarean delivery (AOR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.03–13.81).
How common are umbilical cord problems?
Umbilical cord cysts are sacs of fluid in the umbilical cord. They’re not common—less than 1 in 100 pregnancies (less than 1 percent) has an umbilical cord cyst. Your provider may find an umbilical cord cyst during an ultrasound.
What are the abnormalities of the umbilical cord?
Fetal anomalies most commonly associated with single umbilical artery include several anomalies like ventricular septal defects, hydronephrosis, cleft lip, ventral wall defects, esophageal atresia, spina bifida, hydrocephaly, holoprosencephaly, diaphragmatic hernia, cystic hygromas, and polydactyly or syndactyly.
What is a Circumvallate placenta?
Complete circumvallate placenta was defined as a placenta satisfying the following criteria: the chorionic plate, which is on the fetal side of the placenta, is smaller than the placental basal plate, which is located on the maternal side; the periphery is uncovered; and the fetal surface of such a placenta presents a …
What is considered marginal cord insertion?
Insertion of the umbilical cord within <2 cm from the placental margin is described as marginal cord insertion (usually defined as <2 cm 5 although some references define it as <1 cm 3,6). Whereas lateral insertion of the umbilical cord >2 cm from the placental margin is described as eccentric cord insertion.
What does cord insertion mean?
Velamentous cord insertion and marginal cord insertion mean that the umbilical cord is attached to the amniotic membrane or the side of the placenta rather than going right into the center of the placenta as usual.
Is Velamentous cord insertion the same as marginal cord insertion?
A marginal cord insertion is where this distance is reduced to a minimum, but the insertion site is supported by very little placental tissue. Velamentous insertion of the umbilical cord has been associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes –.
What is eccentric cord?
eccentric cord insertion: lateral insertion of the umbilical cord >2 cm from the placental margin. term sometimes used synonymously with marginal cord insertion.
What does eccentrically mean?
1a : deviating from conventional or accepted usage or conduct especially in odd or whimsical ways an eccentric millionaire. b : deviating from an established or usual pattern or style eccentric products. 2a : deviating from a circular path especially : elliptical sense 1 an eccentric orbit.
When does the umbilical cord attached to the placenta?
The umbilical cord is the vital connection between the fetus and the placenta. Umbilical cord development begins in the embryologic period around week 3 with the formation of the connecting stalk.
What is the most common problem with umbilical cord abnormalities?
Studies suggest that babies with single umbilical artery have an increased risk for birth defects, including heart, central nervous system and urinary-tract defects and chromosomal abnormalities (2, 3).
When should I be concerned about the umbilical cord?
Signs of a problem
Much like a scab, the cord stump might bleed a little when it falls off. However, contact your baby’s doctor if the umbilical area oozes pus, the surrounding skin becomes red and swollen, or the area develops a pink moist bump. These could be signs of an umbilical cord infection.
Is the umbilical cord connected to my belly button?
As you can see, it is not attached to anything in the body. The belly button is where the umbilical cord attaches to the fetus, connecting the developing baby to the placenta.
How do you know if something is wrong with your umbilical cord?
Common signs of umbilical cord problems include an irregular fetal heartbeat and decreased or low fetal movement. Umbilical cord problems can be a serious threat to the child’s health and should be carefully monitored and treated as necessary.
At what week do most stillbirths occur?
An early stillbirth is a fetal death occurring between 20 and 27 completed weeks of pregnancy. A late stillbirth occurs between 28 and 36 completed pregnancy weeks. A term stillbirth occurs between 37 or more completed pregnancy weeks..
What causes umbilical cord abnormalities?
Risk factors for umbilical cord prolapse include low birth weight, breech presentation, abnormal placentation, multiparity, polyhydramnios, velamentous cord insertion, and spontaneous rupture of the membranes (31). Cord prolapse may be associated with fetal hypoxia, perinatal death, and fetal neurologic sequelae.
How often does marginal cord insertion turn into Velamentous?
It happens more often in pregnancies involving twins. It occurs in about 1% of pregnancies resulting in one child but in almost 9% of twin pregnancies. The rate is higher when the twins share a single or fused placenta.
What is it called when the umbilical cord attaches to the side of the placenta?
A velamentous cord insertion is when a fetus’ umbilical cord abnormally inserts on the edge of the placenta along the chorioamniotic membranes, causing fetal blood vessels to travel unprotected from the placenta until they come together and reach the protection of the umbilical cord.
When is marginal cord insertion diagnosed?
Velamentous cord insertion can be diagnosed at 8 weeks of gestation, earlier than previously reported. Fetal surveillance may be informed and prognosis may be impacted by early diagnosis once viability is reached.